Atkin's PW, Shriver DF. Levels of regulation • loci of control constraints • above the genome1. The most popular abbreviation for Journal Of Trace Elements In Medicine And Biology is: JTEMB 2017; Journal of Applied Polymer Science. Specifically, does the zinc deficient phenotype differ under varying degrees of antioxidant nutrient status? These are deceptively complex issues that require an answer if diets are to be optimized with respect to trace element content and balance. The first entry in Table 1 begins with a recognition of the difficulties still faced in identifying mild trace element deficiencies and their functional consequences, perhaps further confounded by other specific but concurrent inadequacies. Biol Trace Elem Res 1990;26-27:599-611. A recent article by Strohman (42) is instructive in this context. Importance of Trace Elements in the Human Body. 2017; The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. A conspectus of research on zinc requirements of man. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2008;5:418-22. For example, as summarized in Table 4, measurement of organic acids associated with the Krebs cycle might be valuable for assessing iron status (9) or determination of ribose and deoxyribose levels in blood or cells as indices of cell turnover and perhaps, therefore, of zinc status. Some intermediary metabolites, together with trace element determinations, for assessment of the metabolome, • Organic acids in and around the Krebs cycles, • Purine and pyrimidine precursors and metabolites, • PUFA and HETE cascade (inflammatory) oxidation products, • Pro-oxidant and antioxidant capacity in relation to trace element levels/functions, • Ribose and deoxyribose as cell turnover time markers, Copyright © 2021 American Society for Nutrition. • The precise recognition of mild trace element deficiencies and how to establish their functional consequences, possibly confounded by other concurrent trace element inadequacies, are difficult to assess, • Approaches to the quantitative determination of requirements for trace elements remain unsatisfactory and archaic, • Our understanding of the biological basis for and extent of the variation in requirements among apparently similar individuals is poor, • There is a need to determine the quantitative extents to which genetic, epigenetic and dietary factors interact to determine the nutritional phenotype. 2020; : 112769, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. Parenthetically, it is also interesting that geneticists are now arguing that the noncoding output of the genome (e.g., noncoding RNAs) functions in gene regulating networks (19, 20) and it will be exciting to learn how trace elements might function via and/or interact with the “RNome” (21). chris_moorefield; Subjects. Trace Element Biology: The Knowledge Base and its Application for the Nutrition of Individuals and Populations 2019; 29(6): 640, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Although these elements account for only 0.02% of the total body weight, they play signi・…ant roles, e.g., as active centers of enzymes or as trace bioactive substances. Roy CN, Andrews NC. Function suggested from active handling in humans, but no specific identified biochemical functions - Li, V, Cr, B, F, Si, As. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2741-51. Some approaches used to estimate the quantitative requirements for trace elements1. National Academy of Sciences. Biology Chapter 2 46 Terms. The foregoing leads us now briefly to the second entry on the list in Table 1, namely the determination of the requirements for trace elements by humans at different stages of life and under various physiological, dietary and environmental conditions. Hence, an early biochemical defect in zinc deficiency might be a defect in Ca channels, as the work of O'Dell and colleagues seems to suggest (36). Also, if boron is involved in calcium function (64, 65), should we examine calcium-boron relations in soft tissues with particular reference to structure-function relationships. Indeed, some major questions remain difficult to answer in this context, including: i) What is (or becomes) zinc or any other trace element deficiency? Iron in nutrition. This can be measured in a suitable biological sample, by means of such techniques as ELISA or mass spectrometry, at specified times after administration of the sensor (or metaprobe). Chromium and parenteral nutrition. Essential trace elements - Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Se, I. Some of the trace elements control important biological processes by binding to molecules on the receptor site of cell membrane or by alternating the structure of membrane to prevent entry of specific molecules into the cell. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. STUDY. 2019; 2019: 1, Journal of Molecular Structure. Molybdenum is an essential trace element for several enzymes important to animal and plant metabolism: mammalian xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase, sulfite oxidase, formate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase and nitrogenase. J Nutr 1979;109:1979-2066. Hum Mol Genet 2001;10:2181-6. Indeed, as an editorial (18) asked; “What does the genome sequence mean for me, my research and my constitution?” and many attending this meeting have given this question obvious thought by focusing their research on the sequences of relevant genes and their functions. This is the Citationsy guide to Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology citations, reference lists, in-text citations, and bibliographies. Fluoride: Benefits and risks of exposure. Among the various challenges listed earlier in Table 1 were ways to improve intakes and balances among trace elements and other nutrients so as to enhance the role of diet in health promotion and maintenance. 2018; 13(3-4): 173, The Journal of Chemical Physics. Lieu PT, Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Vernon R. Young, Trace Element Biology: The Knowledge Base and its Application for the Nutrition of Individuals and Populations, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 133, Issue 5, May 2003, Pages 1581S–1587S, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.5.1581S. 2019; 319(1): 175, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. Nutr Rev 2001;59:281-5. Schroeder HA, Balassa JJ, Tipton IH. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;32:2076-85. Some ideas are presented as to how we might embrace, in the context of a reconstructive approach, the exciting new knowledge and related techniques emerging during the postgenome era and develop new paradigms for assessing trace element needs and status, and for establishing effective nutrient intake under different conditions of complex genotype-environment interactions. Shi XL, Dalal NS. Search for other works by this author on: Use of stable isotopes to determine bioavailability of minerals in human diets using the method of fecal monitoring, The concept of selenite-exchangeable metabolic pool in humans: a new concept for the assessment of selenium status, The effects of phosphorus depletion, and of calcium and phosphorus intake, on the endogenous excretion of these elements by sheep, The influence of dietary phosphorus intake on the rate of bone metabolism in sheep, Phosphorus depletion in sheep and the ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the diet with reference to calcium and phosphorus absorption, Primordial carbonylated iron-sulfur compounds and the synthesis of pyruvate, Iron deficiency decreases mitochondrial aconitase abundance and citrate concentration without affecting tricarboxylic and cycle capacity in rat liver, From bacteria to mitochondria: aconitase yields surprises, The structure of scientific collaboration networks, International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium, Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome, A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. spp indica), A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. spp japonica), Supplemental zinc lowers measures of iron status in young women with low iron resources, Treatment of iron deficiency in goitrous children improves the efficiency of iodized salt in Côte d'Ivoire, The emerging roles of zinc in infant nutrition, development, and infectious diseases: Part 1, Zinc fingers in Caenorhabditis elegans: finding families and probing pathways, The biomodeoxyuridine comet assay: detection of maturation of recently replicated DNA in individual cells, Effect of redox conditions on the DNA-binding efficiency of the retinoic acid receptor zinc finger, A zinc-sensing receptor triggers the release of intracellular Ca, Crosstalk of the group 11a and 11b metals calcium and zinc in signaling, Role of metallothionein in nitric oxide signaling as revealed by a green fluorescent fusion protein, Institute of Medicine/Food and Nutrition Board, Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc, Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications of Dietary Assessment, Problems and pitfalls in animal experiments designed to establish dietary requirements for essential nutrients, A iron-regulated ferric reductase associated with the absorption of dietary iron, 2001 W.O. 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